Samanya Guna means general properties (quality, attribute
or talent). The values of samanya guna are applicable only
to human beings.
It has significant importance in the Hindu philosophy. When
we talk of samanya guna, it means the common or usual attributes
that are found in each and every human being.
There are 10 well known samanya guna according to Hindu philosophy.
They are Parat, Aparatva, Sankhya, Yukti, Sanyoga, Vibhaga,
Prithaktva, Pariman, Sanskar and Abhyas. The description of
each samanya guna is as follows:
The meaning of parat can be interpreted in different senses, according to different situations. Parat is that samanya guna that has two meanings, priority and solitude. People who have this guna tend to concentrate on one thing at a time and everything else becomes secondary. There is a tendency of aloofness from their surrounding and the other people. Human beings who have parat guna just focus one single object, thereby excelling in whatever they do.
Aparatva again has two meanings, one is proximity and the second one is posterity (later or subsequent).It is exactly the opposite of parat. Here, the focus is on more than one thing and there is constant contact with the outside world (surroundings and people). People with this guna tend to be leaving the work for the latter part and often commit mistakes due to their careless attitude.
Sankhya means number (numerical figure or digit). It is one of the most ancient and fundamental philosophy in India. In English language, Sankhya means counting. The essence of Sankhya is to access the amount of a particular thing. Even though, it is related to numerical but it also acknowledges observation, deduction and proof as a way of information and awareness. Every one has this Sankhya guna but there are very few people who are able to accurately interpret it.
Yukti means skill, expertise or proficiency. The practical
application of yukti guna implies planning and doing something
according to one's ability and area of expertise.
This guna is uniformly present in each and every individual
but its exploitation depends on person to person. The soul
of this guna lies in the fact that planning is dome either
to solve a problem or to evolve and initiate something.
It is considered that planning done in accordance with intelligence
is always successful in implementation. Yukti samanya guna
can be used in a negative or positive way also.
Sanyoga means combination or amalgamation. Co-incidence is at the core of this guna. In this guna things happen by chance, when you do expect anything. For instance, when you hear a good news when you least expect it; this situation would be the result of sanyoga.
Vibhaga means splitting; to divide something into more than one piece. It is the opposite of sanyoga. Often there are separate departments in schools, colleges, shopping malls, etc. Infact, there are 3 types of vibhagas in Hindu philosophy. The efforts made by one side, efforts made by both sides and effort made by all sides.
One needs to carefully understand Prithaktva because it means separation not splitting. Separation can be permanent as well as temporary in nature.
Pariman means size. It is related to terms or things of measurement, such as entity of length, breadth, height, area, large and small etc.
Sanskar samanya guna means to make things good or better. In India, the sanskar plays important part in the conduct of families. The attributes of sanskar guna can make a person worth living and respectable.
The presence of this guna in any person makes him or her perfect, beyond comparison. This samanya guna demands hard work and dedication to achieve anything and everything.