Knowledge of raw materials is known as Padarth
There are seven categories of Padarth Vidnyan as per Ayurveda.
- Dravya or substance
- Guna or quality
- Karma or activity or deed
- Pramana or evidence
- Samanya or similarity
- Samavaya or inseparable
- Vishesh or pecularity
The root word or the origin word of Dravya is Dru. One that has
the capability to change, combine, divide, or go through set of
changes with time, it is known as Dravya. You would have observed
that almost all the things in our surroundings have this tendency
or capability or characteristics, and therefore can be segregated
under Dravya. Moreover, if something acts as the substratum for
modification, it is also known as Dravya.
In short, substance can be known as dravya. If you cannot separate
any of the substance's quality, or property from its mass, then
that substance is known as dravya. Dravyatva is known as changeability
attribute, through which the substance's modification is changed
continuously and without any interruption by that quality of virtue.
Entity cannot be separated of both the Dravya and mode or form.
Dravya or Dhruvya means permanence also. It can be divided into
two: Karan & Karya Dravya.
Responsible for attraction towards Dravya, guna is intimate but inactive resident of it. The activities are done by Dravya, and therefore, guna is not like other residents or karma in the Dravya. Dravya's attraction factor is known as Guna. As per Ayurveda, there are forty one gunas, and are as follows:
- Sartha Indriya Guna: These are five gunas in number and represent senses.
- Gurvadi Guna: These are twenty in number, and are known as Sharirik guna.
- Adhyatmic Guna: These are six gunas of atma of living things only.
- Samanya Guna or general property: These gunas are general ones and there are ten of these.
The process of meeting and separation depends on the factor, karma. It falls under resident dravya; however, it is different from guna. The activities that a person has done in the past, doing in the present and would do in the future would be known as deed. Each of us is responsible for our own karma. Based on our own experiences and creations, karma would be either good or bad. Karma governs ones life. Karma can be classified into Adhyatmik and Laukika.
It is truth verifier. The way in which truth is verified is known as pramana. Pramana is classified into four by Charaka, while Sushruta classifies it into five. Charaka's classification is Pratyaksha, Anumana, Yukti, and Aptopdesha. Sushruta's classification is Prayiaksha, Anuman, Upamana, Aptopdesha, and Pratyaksha.
Grouping of similar things under same head or category is known as Samanya. The basic treatment is derived with the help of Samanya therapy. Samanya is classified into five types. They are Para-apara bheda, apar samanya, para apar samanya, Dravya guna bheda, and guna samanya.
A relation that is either inseparable or intimate is known as samavaya. The relationship between matter and its function, and matter and its property is samavaya.
The special property that differentiates matter from each other is Vishesh. It is classified into three. They are Dravya vishesha, guna vishesha, and karma vishesha.